The exposure triangle is a fundamental concept in photography that involves three elements: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. These three elements work together to produce a photo that is properly exposed. If one variable changes, at least one of the others must also change to maintain the correct exposure.
Aperture: The aperture is the opening in the lens that allows light to enter the camera. It is measured in f-stops, and the lower the f-stop number, the larger the aperture opening. A larger aperture opening allows more light to enter the camera, which is useful in low-light situations. However, a larger aperture also results in a shallower depth of field, which can be used to create a blurred background effect. The depth of field is the range of distance in a photo that appears to be in focus. A shallow depth of field means that only a small portion of the photo is in focus, while a deep depth of field means that most of the photo is in focus. The aperture also affects the sharpness of the photo, with smaller apertures resulting in sharper photos.
Shutter speed: The shutter speed is the amount of time that the camera’s shutter is open. It is measured in seconds or fractions of a second. A faster shutter speed allows less light to enter the camera, which is useful in bright situations. However, a faster shutter speed also freezes motion, while a slower shutter speed can create motion blur. Motion blur is the blurring of moving objects in a photo, which can be used to create a sense of motion or speed. The shutter speed also affects the exposure of the photo, with longer shutter speeds resulting in brighter photos .
ISO: The ISO is the camera’s sensitivity to light. A higher ISO allows the camera to capture more light, which is useful in low-light situations. However, a higher ISO also results in more noise in the image, which can reduce image quality. Noise is the grainy appearance of a photo, which can be distracting or reduce the sharpness of the photo. The ISO also affects the exposure of the photo, with higher ISOs resulting in brighter photos .
To use the exposure triangle, you need to balance these three elements to achieve the desired exposure. For example, if you want to create a blurred background effect, you would use a larger aperture opening (lower f-stop number), a slower shutter speed, and a lower ISO. If you want to freeze motion, you would use a faster shutter speed, and if you want to capture more detail in low-light situations, you would use a higher ISO.